The difference between thf of quantity and oquality
The difference between the f. of quantity and f. of quality
Appeared as a result of defiance of behavior.
professionalisms. Non-terminological substitutes for prof. terms
(machine gun is replaced by sewing machine bec. of similarity of noise;
gomer=get out of my emergency room; GOK=God Only Knows,
Official (social) terms. Used to denote non- profess. thing relevant for representatives of a social group with common interests (music fans, drug-addicts)
(drug-out= a retired soldier returned to active service
Cant is a secret lingo of the underworld of criminals. Appeared in order to make speech incomprehensible to outsiders.
As soon as a slang w. comes to be widely used it stops being felt as wrong. It may pass into the colloq. sphere and later even become neutral.
Ex:photo, phone, flu, mob, movies, exam, joker- colloq. neutral.
taxi, bus, pub, kidnap, skyscraper neutral.
Novelty is quickly lost due to popularity (constant change in slang). It is very rich in synonyms.
40 slang words to denote money (monkey - five hundred pounds, bread (bread and honey) money, jack, tin, slippery stuff)and food(chuck, chow, grub, hash)
Such words are v. colorful and expressive.
(mag-magazine, rad-radio, to raise hell- to become very angry, to ig- to ignore, megga-very much (mega backs), a studying machine.)
Various tropes participate in slang formation:
- understatement (whistle= flute, some= )
prof (professor), congrats (congratulations), desres (desirable residence), SRO (standing room only)= jeans with low waist.
Stylistically lowest group of words which are too offensive for polite usage.
Lexical vulgarismsexpress considered unmentionable in civilized society. Their very denotation is vulgar. + the so-called 4-letter-words (damn, shit, hell)
Stylistic vulgarismsdenote nothing indecent. There is nothing improper about their reference. But their st-c connotations express strong derogatory attitude. Some scholars: they are low slang, affected colloq. speech. (ex:old bean= old man, smeller= nose)
V.w-s help to express emotions, emotive and expressive assessment of the object spoken about, perform the function of characterization.
11. Phraseology and its stylistic use.
Set-phrases are much more expressive than their non-phraseol. counter parts. As well as w-s, phras. units can be stylistically neutral, elevated, etc.
To cost a pretty penny = to cost an arm and a leg
The iron in ones soul = permanent embitterment
Mahomets coffin= between good and evil
Gordian knot = a complicated problem
A propos de bottes = unconnected with the preceding remark
To fly off the handle= to become angry
To be nuts about= to be extremely fond of
To shoot ones grandmother= to say a non-sensual or commonplace thing
To keep in the pin= to abstain from drinking
To kick the bucket, to hop the twig= to die
Mad as a bicycle, to shoot ones grandmother
A very effective st-c device is intentional violation of phras. units
The writer pretends to understand the phrase literally thus disclosing the inner form
The writer reminds the reader of the additional meaning of the components
The writer insert additional components in the set-expression
The writer substitutes the beg. words of the phrase.
Sometimes it is accompanied by changes in spelling(Sofa, so good!= so far, so good!)
12. Figures of speech. Their classification.
Semasiology (onomasiology)is a branch of linguistics that studies stylistic phenomena in the stylistic meaning, investigates shifts of meaning and certain combination of meaning.
Stylistic phenomena effected by various shifts of meanings are usually termed figures of speech.
based on replacement of the habitual name of a thing by its situational substitute; it is one meaning that produces stylistic effect (PARADIGMATIC SEMASILOGY=ONOMASIOLOGY)
based on combination of meaning in speech; it is a combination of at least two meanings that produces stylistic effect (SINTAGMATIC SEMASIOLOGY)
- hyperbole - understatement (meiosis) - litotes
transfer by contiguity(metonymic group)
: metonymy, synecdoche, periphrasis
- transfer by similarity(metaphoric group)
: metaphor, personification, epithet -
Tropes(Greektropos turning) are all kinds of transfer of denominations (from a traditional object to a situational object).
The psychological essence of a trope is just the prominence given to two units of sense in one unit of form. Only the double meaning creates animage; we observe a trope only when we see both meanings. If only one meaning then we deal withetymological tropes(metaphors),dead tropes, which are studied by lexicology. Ex:back of a chair, leg of a table, foot of a hill, .
The difference between the f. of quantity and f. of quality.
Quantitative deviation either saying too much overestimating the dimensions(, , ) of the object or saying too little undervaluing the size of the thing , its importance etc.
-Yes, I have 3 dollars.(neutral)/Oh, yes, lots!(overestimating)/Yes, just pennies though.(undervaluing)
By quantitative difference we mean a radical difference between the usual meaning of a linguistic unit and its actual reference.
Hey you,green coat! You left your handbag!
Metonymyis a trope based upona real connectionbetween the 2 objects: that which is named and the name of which is taken. (transfer by contiguity)
I was followed by a pair of heavy boots.
Stereotyped (etymological) metonymy (Im fond of Dickens; I collect old china) have no expressive force as contrasted to genuine metonymy (« , »).
The following types of metonymy are differentiated:
1) names of tools instead the names of actions (the guitar played beautifully)
2) consequence instead of cause (the fishdesperately takes the death=snaps at the fish-hook)
3) the material instead of the thing made of it:He examined her bronzes and clays.
4)characteristic feature of the object (Hey you,green coat! You left your handbag!)
5) a symbol instead the object symbolized (synecdoche):the crown(= king);a hand(= worker)
Synecdoche a variety of metonymy: using the name of a part to denote the whole or vice versa.
Stereotyped synecdoche:hands worker(s);a hundred head of cattle a part for the whole;
Stop torturing the poor animal!(instead of the poor dog!)
Reading books when Im talking to you!
Metaphoris a trope based onlikenessof the two, there beingno actual connectionbetween them. (transfer by similarity)
As they are disconnected, to find features in common, the speaker mustsearch for associationsin his own mind that is not as in the case of metonymy, where both objects lie before our eyes. = metaphor requires a greater intellectual effort. Metaphor seems to be a more essential shift (change of semantic planes) than is observed in metonymy.
2) Complex (sustained, prolonged) one metaphoric statement, creating an image, is followed by another containing the development of the previous metaphor.
This is the day of your Golden opportunity, Sarge. Dont let it turn to brass.
Incongruence of the parts of a complex metaphor is calledcatachresis(ormixed metaphors):
The Tooth of Time, which has already dried many a tear, will let the grass grow over his painful wound
there is in the hay needle, and among the sleeping dogs there is one on whom I shall put my foot, and by shooting the arrow into the air, one will come down and hit a glass-house
Trite metaphors:seeds (roots) of evil, a flight of imagination, to burn with desire. Many of them are set phrases:to fish for compliments, to prick up ones ears, the apple of ones eye, to bark up the wrong tree, chewing the rag, with the cards face up, etc.
If Aitken found about us the New York job would go up in smoke (= every chance of getting the New York job would be lost).
Only briefly did I pay heed to the warning bell (=the feeling of alarm) that rang sharply in my mind.
Personificationis a variety of metaphor, attributing human properties to lifeless objects.
-in classical poetry of the 17thcent. P. was a tribute to mythological tradition and to the laws of ancient rhetoric.
-to impart the dynamic force to the description
-to depict the perception of the outer world by the lyrical hero
No sleep till morn, when Youth and Pleasure meet
To chase the glowing Hours with flyingfeef.
Allegoryis a device by which the names of objects or characters of a story are used in a figurative sense, representing some more general things, good or bad qualities. This is often found in fables)and parables).It is also a typical feature of proverbs (metonymical A.), which contain generalizations (express some general moral truths):
Metaphorical A.: broken chains - freedom; white dove peace etc.
Irony(from Greekeironia mockery concealed) is a trope based on transfer by contrast; its the use of words, phrases, sentences and complete texts with implied meanings that aredirectlyopposite to the primary ones.
Aren t you a hero running away from a mouse!
There are at least 2 kinds of irony:
1) Antiphrasis the ironical sense is evident to any native speaker; can give only an ironical message; the peculiar word order and stereotyped words make up set phrases.
Thats a pretty kettle of fish!( ! !)
2) Utterances which can be understood either literary, or ironically. We cannot say if the speaker is serious or ironical when he says:But of course we know, hes a rich man, a millionaire. In oral speech, irony is often marked by emphatic intonation, in writing by inverted comas or italics.
The Aim of irony critical evaluation of the thing spoken about = 2 types:
- praise stands for blame: How clever of you!
- blame stands for praise (seldom) astheism: Clever bastard! Tough son-of-a-bitch! ( !)
Ironic coloring when the whole phrase produce the stylistic effect, separate units of which are not stylistically relevant.
Hyperbole exaggeration of dimensions or other properties of the object.
The main sphere of use is colloquial speech. Stereotyped (trite) hyperboles: a thousand pardons, Ive told you forty times, he was frightened to death, I havent seen you for ages.
Hyperboles serve expressive purposes they arenoticed and appreciated by the reader, though he does not take them seriously.
An expressive hyperbole/ as distinct from trite ones (used in everyday speech), is exaggeration on a big scale. There must be smth illogical, unreal, impossible contrary to common sense in less than no time; etc. Paradoxical, illogical hyperboles are employedfor humoristic purposes.
murmuredsuch a dreadful oath that he would not dare to repeat it to himself
One after another those people lay down on the ground to laugh and two of them died.
and gave him such a kick thathe went out the other end of the alley, twenty feet ahead of his squeal.
One does not knowwhether to admire them, or whether to say Silly fools.
Hyperbole + metaphor (demonstrates a gigantic disproportion between what is named and the characteristics given: And talk! Shecould talk the hind leg off a donkey!
he said in avoice that could have peeled rust off the keel of a ship( ); said in avoice that could have loosened a rusty nut off the propeller of a liner
in a silence you could lean on
Meiosis (understatement) an opposite of hyperbole; it is lessening, weakening the real characteristics of the object, serves to underline the insignificance of what we speak about.
It will cost youaprettypenny. (nota pennybut perhaps many pounds or dollars, a large sum of money).
And what did you think of ourlittle town? asked Zizzbaum, with the fatuous smile of the Manhattanite.
Youve got good water, but Cactus City is better lit up.
Weve gota few lights on Broadway, dont you think, Mr. Platt?
Varieties ofhyperbole(dont confuse with meiosis!!):
-a cat-size pony(= a very small pony)
It is meiosis when the speaker understates normal or more than normal (e.g. big) things. When the object spoken about is really small or insignificant, we have a hyperbole.
-he lives a stones throw from here( )
-just a moment, please = before you could say Jack Robinson
-She sang listlessly andthe applauseshe collectedcould have been packed into a thimble without overflowing.
Hyperbole appeals directly to imagination, being an expression of emotional extravagance. The essence of meiosis is somewhat more complicated and refined; meiosis may be regarded as a kind of strengthening through apparent weakening.
Meiosis has no definite formal expression; various expressive means serve to express it:
- I washalf afraidyou have forgotten me.
A humorous effect is observed when downtoners (maybe, please, would you mind etc.) co-occur with offensive words in the same utterance:
- It isnt any of your business maybe.
- Would you mind getting the hell out of my way?
Litotes a specific form of meiosis, expressing an idea by means of negating the opposite idea.
Jeff is in the line ofunillegalgraft.
face completed thenot-unhandsomepicture
He [the policemans officer] doesnt like you any more than we do.
-Wed like to see you in the office.
His grey face was so long that he could wind it twice round his neck.
A writing desk the size of a tennis court
the swimming pool, the size Lake Huron
16. Periphrasis. Epithet. Antonomasia.
Periphrasisdoes not belong with the tropes, but this way of identifying the object of speech is related to metonymy; its a direct description of what could be named directly. It couldnt be expressed by one linguistic unit (the difference from metonymy).
A thriller=two hundred pages of blood-curdling narrative.
Stylistic effect from elevation to humour.
I never call a spade a spade, I call ita bloody shovel.
Tea=the cups that cheer but not inebriate.
Lies=alterations and improvements on the truth.
Major Burnaby was doing his accounts or to use a more Dickens-like phrase hewas looking into his affairs.
He shouting indecent phrases =shouting some choice Anglo-Saxon phrases at the policeman.
In 19thcentury prose P. carries a humoristic load.
A disturber of a piano keys (a pianist)
Up Broadway he turned and halted at a glittering caf, where gathered together nightly thechoicest products of the grape, the silkworm, and the protoplasm. (the best wine, dresses, people)
() ( ) !
Epithetis a word or phrase containing an expressive characteristic of the object, and thus creating an image.
We cant expect to find a place for the epithet among the tropes, because its not a trope, although it may be metaphoric, metonymic, or ironical.
Fixed epithets()are often found in folklore:my true love; a sweet heart; the green wood; a dark forest; brave cavaliers; merry old England.
Antonomasiais the use of name of a historical, literary, mythological, or biblical personage applied to a person whose characteristic features resemble those of the well-known original.
hooligan, quiszling(the name of the Norwegian collaborator in the years W. War II)
In such sentences there ishardly anything of special stylistic significance:
In common nouns mackintosh, sandwich, shrapnel.
Simile imaginative comparison; an explicit statement of partial identity (affinity, likeness, similarity) of two objects.
The wordexplicitused in the definition distinguishes the simile from the metaphor, which presupposes similarity of the notion expressed and the notion implied. When using a metaphor we pretend to believe that the thing named is actually the thing referred to: calling a person apigthe speaker behaves as if he really believed what he said. In a simile the speaker is always aware that untidy, or greedy, or insolent person onlylooksoractsas does a pig.
Metaphor is a renaming and simile always employs two names of two separate objects. Simile contains at least one more component part a word or a group of words signalizing the idea of juxtaposition and comparison. Formal signs conj.:like, as (as if, as though), than; verbs:to resemble, to remind one of; verbal phrases:to bear a resemblance to, to have a look ofetc. Examples oftrite similewith alliteration:
A fresh simile, especially elaborate one is one of the bestimage-creating devices.
Care should be taken not to confuse the simile and any sort of elementary logical comparison. A simile pre supposes confrontation of two objects belonging to radically different semantic spheres; a comparison deals with two objects of the same semantic sphere:
She can sing like professional actress.(log. comparison)
She can sing like a nightingale. (simile)
Simile may be combined with or accompanied by another stylistic device, or it may achieve one stylistic effect or another.
a millionaire invalid with four days to live, and who hasnt as yet paid his doctors bill.
a sharp attack of jaundice before departing this earth
holding a microphone the way a drowning man hangs on the lifebelt
18. Quasi- identity().
Its a case of active identification.
Traditionally qualified as examples of metaphors, although only wordsassandangelare used metaphorically. Taken as a whole, the two utterances differ greatly from similes. The utterances are not metaphors in the strict sense of the tem: the real names of objects precede the figurative ones, and the idea of comparison is quite obvious. On the other hand, they lack what is indispensable for a simile formal signals of comparison.
Rhematic part of the utterance is metonymy:
That old duffer? Hes oil, I guess. ( )
- Caracas is in Venezuela, of course.
- Why, its principally earthquakes and Negroes and monkeys and malarian fever and volcanoes.
Some of quasi-identities manifest special expressive force chiefly when the usual topic comment positions change places: the metaphoric name appears in the text the 1st, the direct denomination following it.
The machine sitting at the desk was no longer a man: it was a busy New York Broker.
she short at me with two blue pellets which served her as eyes.
Money is time, and writing an entertainment can bring a novelist a very sweet chunk of it
On the whole synonyms are used in actual texts for 2 different reasons:
The littleboywas crying. It waschildsusual time for going to bad but no one paid attention to thekid. an example ofsynonymic replacers()/variations, when the communicator intentionally ignores any differentiation of meaning in the synonyms.
2. to provide additional shades of the meaning intended.
Dear Paul, its veryweak and sillyof me, I know, to be sotrembly and shakyfrom head to foot. an example ofsynonymic specifiers(): the speaker is anxious to make more adequate description of his mental and physical state; two more or less synonymous adjectives are supposed to be stronger than one.
Excessive repetition of the same words makes the style poor in a way it betrays the poverty of ones vocabulary.
Piggys an awfulswell; and he always takes a girl toswellplaces. where they haveswellmusic and you see a lot ofswells
Interchange of the same thing in speech is calledelegant variation:
Situational (contextual) synonyms co-referential units, its not synonyms that replace one another but words with essentially different meanings.
The same person can be referred to asneighbour, student, brother, Richard, heetc.
Both synonymous replacers and situational synonyms are usually placed at some distance from one another: they do not immediately follow one another, mostly recurring in adjacent (, ) sentences or clauses.
Elegant variation of the names (or synonymic variation) renders the idea of equality, identity to a fuller extent.
Pun play upon words. The semantic essence of this device is based on polysemy and homonymy.
Pun is ether polysemy actualized in the utterance which has at least 2 meanings = the recipient chooses one (1) or 2 contiguous utterances similar in form, their constituents have essentially different meaning (2).
(1) Oneswallowdoes not make a summer.
(2) It is not my principle to pay the interest, and its not my interest to pay the principle. , , .
Pretended misunderstanding (here it is mostly intentional treating idioms used in their primary sense):
Cannibal king:No, one is enough. Too many cooks spoil the broth.
Zeugmaconsists in combining unequal, semantically heterogeneous incompatible words and phrases.
What makes zeugmatic combinations look uncommon, often humorous disparity of grammatical types: one may be a free combination, the other an idiom (1); one is an adverbial preposition phrase, the other a prepositional object or attribute (2); grammatical connection is everywhere the same, but each unit pertains to a semantic sphere inconsistent with the other (3).
(1) was alternately cudgeling his brains and his donkey.
(3)She dropped a tear and her handkerchief.
At noon Mrs. Turpin would get out of bed and humor, put on kimono, airs and the water to boil for coffee.
21. Climax (gradation) and bathos (anti-climax).
Climax(Greek ladder, Latingradatio climbing up) is such an arrangement of ideas in which what precedes is inferior to what follows. The first element is the weakest; the subsequent elements gradually rise in strength.
Im sorry. Im so very sorry. Im so extremely sorry.
An essential point. Climax is formed by correlative notions, which are supposed to belong to the same semantic plane words, phrases, sentences may be what is called ideographic synonyms: their meanings demonstrate different degrees of the property expressed.
What difference if it rained, hailed, blew, snowed, cycloned?
The book has a power-a very exceptional power the most powerful book of the month.
A real bathos is a sudden deception of the recipient: it consists in adding one weaker element to one or several strong ones, mentioned before.
Except the cases of intended jest, anti-climax is climax erroneously programmed, disclosing a system of values contradicting our common sense
Whenhusbandsor whenlap-dogsbreathe their last.
Antithesis(from Greekantiagainst;thesisstatement) emphasizes the notions really or presumably contrastive. The purpose of using this device is to demonstrate the contradictory nature of the referent. Three varieties of A:
Two words or expressions of the opposite meanings may be used to characterize the same object:
A. may be used to depict two objects with opposite characteristics:
Two objects may be opposed as incompatible by themselves and each of them obtain a characteristic opposite to that of the other:
The most natural expression of contrast is the use of antonyms. But objects may be opposite from the particular point of view of the speaker or writer (ex: high fees light lessons: the price of the lessons is high, their quality low, but if the quality is low the price ought to be low.)
You blessed darling, cried Grace, now a rainbow instead of sunset.
A. in the mouth of half-educated swindler paying homage to his companions philanthropic intentions:
You have a kind nucleus at the interior of your exterior after all
Trite antithesis:now or never, dead or alive, yes or no, the first and the lastetc.
Oxymoron(Greek sharp-dull) ascribes some feature to an object incompatible with this feature.
Andfaith unfaithfulkept himfalsely true.
O. discloses the essence of the object full of discrepancies.
I liked him better than I would like his father We werefellow strangers.
: , .
23 EXPRESSIVE MEANS OF SYNTAX AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION
Stylistic syntax is the branch of linguistics which investigates the stylistic value of syntactic forms, stylistic functions of syntactic phenomena, their stylistic classifications as well as their appurtenance to sub-languages or styles.
Forms of sentences and word-combinations may beexpressive or neurtal.
We are to take for stylistically neutral the structure of a simple sentence not possesing any particular deformities as regards the number of its constituents or their order.
Any deviation from the normal accepted structure of the sentence changes stylistic value of the utterance, making the sentence stylistically significant expressive emotionally or belonging to some special sphere of one sub-language or another.
Its not only syntactival forms of separate sentences (paradigmatic syntax), but the interralation of the contiguous syntactical forms as well (syntagmatic syntax).
The expressive means of syntax may be subdivided into:
1) based on absence of logically indispensable elements
unfinished sentences (aposiopesis)
constructions in which auxiliary elements are missing
2) based on the excessive use of speech elements (repetition: framing, anadiplosis, prolepsis or syntactic tautology, polysyndeton)
3) consisting in an unusual arrangement of linguistic elements (stylistic inversion)
4) based on interaction of syntactical forms (parallelism: chiasmus, anaphora, epiphora)
5) connection between parts of the sentence (detachment, parenthesis)
6) revaluation of syntactic means (quasi-affirmative, auasi-negative, quasi-imperative, quasi-interrogative sentences, rhetorical question)
the most general classification of expressive syntactic means: from the viewpoint of quantative characteristics of the syntactic structure there are only two possible varieties of deviation:
1) the absence of elements which are obligatory in a neutral construction
With dropping of some sentence elements the stylistic appurtenance of a sentence changes into stylistically significant.
Additional words and more complicated constructions aim at emphasizing the thought expressed.
24 ELLIPSIS. NOMINATIVE SENTENCES. APOSIOPESIS.
Ellipticalare those sentences in which one or both principle parrts (subject and predicate) are felt as missing, since theoretically they could be restored.
Theyre typical of oral communication, especially colloquial speech. But there theyre not stylistically marked. In other spheres allipsis is used for a certain stylistic aim.
The missing elements are supplied by the context (lingual or extra-lingual). Theyre either present in the context or theyre implied by the situation.
They impact a certain tinge of familiarity; a certain emotional tension to the narration. In personative discourse theyre used to make speech more natural, they render informal character to speech. The brevity () of the sentences and abruptness of their intonation impart a certain tinge of sharpness to them.
Sometimes the omission of subjects contribute to the acceleration of the tempo to speech.
Theyre often used in dictionaries, reference books (), diaries, telegrams for the sake of business-like brevity. In oral speech and fiction using of ellipsis aims at economy and expressiveness.
In contemporary prose ellipsis is mainly used in dialogue where it is conciously employed by the author to reflect the natural omittions characterising oral colloquial speech.
He bacame one of the prominent men of the House. spoke clean and modesty, and was never too long
- I dont want my husband to know that Im Im - Affiliated to art?
ALICE: Wheres the man Im going to marry? GENERVA: Out in the garden ALICE: Whats he doing out here? GENERVA: Annoying Father
the first answer ai a potential adverbial modifier of place used independently; the second part of the simple predicate plus direct object.
Dont know. Havent read them. Looked pretty hopeless.
Will you and Jonnie come in and have drinks with us this evening, Maurenn?
. the subject and the modal verb of a complex preficate I should are missed.
Shant (), said Ernie and continued.
the only part present is the auxiliary verb in the negative form
Trying for date and site London versus Patterson will inform you have patience
a text of a telegram. Participal predicates replaced verbal ones.
Just arrived. elethant passed through half an hour ago, creating wildes fight and excitement. Elephant tanged arounf streets; two plumbers going by killed one other escaped. Regret general. Detective.
the text of a telegram. Articles are missed. regret general = There is a general regret.
Why unnews query unnews good news unnews unjob
the absolutely specific feature of the sublanguage of telegrames is the unusually extensive use of prefix un- .
Slow (instead of Please drive slowly)
His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all on one side.
The wives, how are the wives? The wives? Lead. And the sun? Zero.
Some people go to priests; others to poetry; I to my friends.(Virginia Woolf)
True stories deal with hunger, imaginary ones with love.
Auxiliary words have, do, be, will as well as the link verb be are very often dropped in informal oral communication.
A sentence comprising both subject and predicate (either complete or in part) is not
Categories: General fiction